How to write reliability and validity in research proposal?

Validity and reliability are used in evaluating the quality you have in your research. When you are working on planning your methodology, creating design of your research or when writing your results, you have to keep in mind about validity and reliability. Consider validity and reliability when choosing measurement equipment and while choosing research methodology mainly in conducting quantitative research. Validity defines how accurate your measurement is and reliability defines the consistency in your measurement. Maintaining validity and reliability while writing your research paper exhibits your deep knowledge about the research. They show how your test methods or techniques measure the value. Follow the steps below to address validity and reliability in your proposal:

1. Define Reliability and Validity:
  • Reliability: It defines the scale about which the measurement done in same circumstances provide same result. In other way, reliability in research states that the outcome should be reliable with similar measurements when the study is replicated. For example, if an experiment produces same result every time then it is reliable.
  • Validity: Validity denotes suitable and accurate measurements. For example, the valid instrument accomplishes a target accurately or without involving variable values. It makes sure the measurement needs.
2. Include a Subsection on Measurement Instruments:
  • Overview: The primary instruments are chosen in a way to understand about the research comprehensively. The interviews, observations and surveys are the primary instruments included. Collection of data follows either a qualitative or quantitative method.
3. Discuss Face Validity:
  • Face Validity: Face validity checks whether the instruments used for measurement meets the expectation or not. Reviews were done by the experts to validate about the research question, whether it is clear or not, does that meet the research objective. Then conducting pilot testing ensures instruments face validity.
4. Address Content Validity:
  • Content Validity: It makes sure whether the measuring instrument you chose covers the construct or content in which you are doing study. The criteria in which it evaluates this include comprehensive coverage and reviews from old literatures. To make the equipment work properly to reach the result, experts make adjustments to it.
5. Discuss Construct Validity:
  • Construct Validity: Construct validity will measure the theoretical content for the chosen instrument. The criterion followed here comes from previous researches from this field of study.
6. Explain Criterion-Related Validity:
  • Criterion-Related Validity: If any external criteria are used in the experiment then the criterion related validity checks it. It checks how good the instrument predicts those criteria by keeping the real world outcome in mind.
7. Discuss Reliability:
  • Internal Consistency: Internal consistency is a feature of reliability. Using Cronbach’s alpha the internal consistency is examined. It checks whether the construct gives you reliable outcomes within the conducted survey.
  • Test-Retest Reliability: after getting reliable outcome every time researchers do a test retest analysis. It involves re checking your outcomes. It examines whether the result obtained over time has a reliable measurement or not.
8. Mention Pilot Testing:
  • Pilot Testing: It is done on a small piece of sample to identify about the problems in measurement instrument regarding validity and reliability. Based on the advice from this test adjustments are done to improve the instruments quality.
9. Discuss Data Analysis Procedures:
  • Data Analysis: Using statistical techniques or methods analyzing of data is done. It ensures reliability and validity of the outcome. It proves that the method chosen for measurement is credible or not.
10. Address Potential Threats:
  • Potential Threats: There are some threats for validity and reliability. This process will identify the strategies to overcome the threads related to validity and reliability. It increases the trust for the result improves the internal validity of study.
11. Cite Relevant Literature:
  • Literature Review: To ensure validity and reliability in the chosen methodology literature review is done. To check the citations from your research citation from other research papers are reviewed which have similar measuring instruments.

12. Seek Feedback:
  • Peer Review: You should ensure whether the external inputs you collected to fill the existing gaps meet reliability and validity of content or not. Get feedback from peers, colleagues, mentors or advisors before submitting the proposal.

Importance of reliability and validity:

  1. Accuracy Assurance: You should produce trustworthy and accurate results, for that reliability helps you.
  2. Reproducibility Support: Reliability helps you in finding the best result and also ensures replication of study.
  3. Trust in Findings: For ensuring trust in your results of study, valid measurements help you.
  4. Generalization Foundation: For generalizing your research beyond your study sample, validity and reliability helps you.
  5. Informed Decision-Making: To ensure sound decision making, validity in your measurements help you.
  6. Comparative Insight: For comparing your research result inside and outside the study, reliable measurements help you.
  7. Enhanced Credibility: To enhance credibility of your study focus on validity and reliability of your methodology.
  8. Reduced Measurement Error: To avoid measurement error, reliability helps you which can contribute to the accuracy in your study.
  9. Theory Development Support: To ensure test and development of your theories and to provide a meaningful result, valid measurements help you.
  10. Policy and Practice Confidence: Valid and reliable result of your research helps you in gaining confidence in your research recommendations through informing the practices and policies.

Advantages of reliability and validity

  1. Methodological Rigor: This helps you find your research method carefully so that the quality of your study is increased.
  2. Credibility Boost: It helps you prove your methodology for research is meaningful by increasing the credibility of your research.
  3. Trustworthy Findings: To make sure your research result is more trustworthy and accurate; make the foundation of your result more strong.
  4. Facilitates Replication: To reproduce the result, clearly documenting the methods involved in your research helps you.
  5. Enhances Generalizability: It ensures generalizing your study which extends the specific topic beyond your area of research.
  6. Informs Decision-Making: It aids you in making reliable decision, which is more important for practices and policy influencing.
  7. Comparative Analysis: It helps you gain more knowledge in the topic by allowing you to compare your conclusions with others.
  8. Supports Theory Development: By contributing to the measurements accurately, it supports the testing and development of theories.
  9. Minimizes Measurement Error: It minimizes the error which ensures the accuracy in data collection.
  10. Reviewer and Stakeholder Confidence: It enhances the confidence among stakeholders, collaborators and reviewers which adds support for your research.

Uses of writing reliability and validity:

  1. Methodological Assurance: The credibility of the study will be increased by ensuring full commitment towards the research methods.
  2. Trustworthiness Confirmation: To make sure that the outcomes of your research is trustworthy; it provides you with evidence to support your measurement of the study.
  3. Replicability Support: To ensure re-productivity of your research for others, it provides you with a framework.
  4. Generalization Foundation: It broadens and strengthens the basis of your generalized outcomes.
  5. Decision-Making Confidence: It supports you in decision making mainly in the area of practice and policy.
  6. Comparative Analysis Facilitation: Doing analysis by comparing your research study with others, help you in gaining more knowledge about the topic.
  7. Theory Development Contribution: To support development of theory by aiding representation of theoretical construct and accurate measurements.
  8. Reduction of Measurement Error: By minimizing the error you can maximize the accuracy on your collected data.
  9. Reviewer and Stakeholder Confidence: To support your research proposal you have to increase the confidence among the stakeholders and reviewers.
  10. Feedback Incorporation Opportunity: Before submitting your study, getting feedbacks can help you improve quality of your research.
  11. Ethical Research Practice: With keeping reviewers response it improves ethical consideration by making accurate measurement.


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