How to do scientific research

A scientific research work is done to bring out the naked truth about a particular field, which is done by conducting experiments and testing. The same principle can be used in various fields of scientific research which include new technologies and business. The steps involved in conducting experiments include, observing as first step then making predictions which leads forming hypothesis then doing the actual experiment and then the last step is to analyze the result.

Steps of the scientific method

The scientific method involves seven steps that should be followed. This method can be a solution to only those questions which can only be proved or disproved through experiments. Those steps for scientific research method need not to be in the same particular order. The order of the steps may change, that depends on what is being tested and who is doing it.

We can now know more elaborately about those steps of scientific method:

  1. Make an Observation:

Every process begin with observation, same do the scientific method also. It is the natural phenomena and patterns happening all over the world which makes the scientists observe more about it and do research on it respectively. Those observations may either be qualitative (descriptive) or quantitative (involving measurements).

  1. Ask a Question:

Once the observation is completed, there arises the question based on the observed incidents. That question should be very clear that it should precisely address the problem and should state the causes, effects and the relationship between variables. The very first step of your project should be finding the problem rather than choosing the field of study.  Every scientific research starts with a question without considering the topic like what, why and how. While starting your project you can make predictions regarding the topic, based on already existing theories or from your own knowledge.

  1. Conduct Research:

After finding the problem that needed to be solved, do more background research on preliminary basis related to the problem you identified to mold yourself to conduct experiment. Search for information through online, libraries or any other sources which may help you with collecting information. You can also take help from previous studies and experiments related to that topic. Before doing a prediction, consider those literature reviews which helps you identify gaps, build a basic foundation and strengthen your question.

  1. Form a Hypothesis:

A hypothesis is a piece of statement that should be tested to predict the result of the experiment. It creates a foundation for the experiment. It is basically done by comparing the relationship within variables. 

  1. Plan and Conduct Experiment:

Hosting an experiment is the most crucial task of the scientific method. It involves testing of the hypothesis to prove it right or wrong which is a highly exciting process. The hypothesis is being tested in this process. Researchers do some changes in independent variables to observe their effects on dependent variables while keeping other factors stable then from those experiments data are collected.

The first thing you should be ready with before doing an experiment is having a hypothesis. Conducting an experiment is the process of testing the hypothesis which is considered as a difficult task and also it is an exciting process.

  • Hypothesis – Be ready with your hypothesis.
  • Design an experiment – Get all the equipment and materials required for the experiment to be conducted.
  • Conduct an experiment – This phase involves following procedures accordingly, noting the observations, and recording results.
  • Independent variable – The factor that is being changed during a scientific experiment
  • Dependent variable – The factor that is being measured or tested during an experiment
  • Controlled variable – The factor that is kept as constant during the scientific experiment
  1. Analyze Data:

Scientists do analyze the data that has been collected during the experiment to draw a conclusion. The main motive is to identify trends, patterns or relationships in the data that can help them to find a solution for the problem they identified.

Here we have to know whether the collected data proves or disproves our hypothesis. That involves, observing and explaining the data collected from the experiment by using pictorial representations.

Explain about:

  • The data that has been collected from experiment.
  • The information and the observations gathered from experiment.
  • To present use pictorial representations through elements like averages, graphs, charts and percentages.
  1. Report Conclusions:

After finishing your experiment, you should come to a conclusion based on the data’s collected and should report it. Researches deliver their research result through presentations, reports or scientific paper. The conclusion should acknowledge whether the data collected is enough to prove or disprove your hypothesis, have any limitations and to lead the research in future. Researches propose their results through scientific papers, presentations, or reports.

Finally when the experiment report is ready, it will be submitted to a higher authority for review. The report should contain all the data that are collected, diagrams, and mainly the conclusion.

The report should explain, whether the collected measurements and data are correct, what are the possible ways of mistakes can occur and also whether the collected data is enough to justify the hypothesis.

Additional Considerations:

  • Repetition:  The Scientific research method is a repeated process, if the collected data is not enough and it does not meet the expectations then you can do further more experiments.
  • Peer Review: Always researches consider advice from other experts before publishing they review your methodology, design and conclusion.
  • Ethical Considerations: Throughout the research process the researcher should follow all the ethical standards specifically when doing experiments with sensitive content and lives.
Practical Applications of the Scientific Method

The below mentioned are some practical applications of the scientific research method:

Solving problems:  Scientists use the scientific method to solve the problem they address all over the world. For instance, if the scientists want to get rid of the river water pollution, they can follow the scientific method to find a solution for that problem.

Explore the unknown:  Scientists use different scientific methods, to discover and explore new things around the world. For instance, if the scientists want to learn more about a new plant then they can experiment about it using scientific method to present a new characteristic about the plant.

Improving technology: Scientists use scientific method to develop new technology. For instance, if the scientist, want to invent a new solar panel model, then they can do experiments using scientific method to find a new supplement for the material used in earlier model.

Understanding natural phenomena: Scientific method is also used to understand the world around us, and to explore new stuffs in the world.

            On the whole scientific method is used to understand and discover the world around us. It is a powerful tool to solve many problems that affects our daily lives in the world.


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